Heterogeneous Role of glial cells : Neurotoxicity or Neuroprotection
Astrocytes are one of the glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. They are the most abundant cells in the brain. They perform many functions, including construction of the central nervous system, regulation of homeostasis of neurons and formation of the blood-brain barrier.
It has been known that inflammation, hepatic failure, neurodegeneration leads to Alzheimer’s Type II Astrocyte and morphological changes of fibrous astrocytes, and eventually gliosis, causing damage to the central nervous system (CNS).
In addition , it has been revealed that Astrocytes become neurotoxic by the stimulation of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin and interferon (IL) -1β of (IFN) γ , reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arachidonic acid metabolites and nitric oxide (NO) production1.
On the other hand, it has been shown that Astrocytes also have a neuroprotective role; as an antioxidant for Glutathione (GSH) in Parkinson’s disease, and inhibition of synaptic transmission due to the release of neurotransmitters such as Glutamic Acid, ATP and D-Serine2.
1) Blasko, I., Sta mpfer-Kountchev, M., Ro batscher, P., Ve erhuis, R., Eikelenboom, P., & Grubeck-Loebenstein, B. (2004). Aging cell, 3(4), 169-76.
2) Maragakis, N. J., & Rothstein, J. D. (2006). Nature clinical practice Neurology, 2(12), 679-89.
3) Sawada, M. (2009). Parkinsonism & related disorders, 15 Suppl 1, S39 41.
4) Johansson, C., Momma, S., & Clarke, D. (1999). Cell, 96, 25-34.
The Astrocyte Culture kit is a kit which consists of formulated cryopreserved cells and culture medium optimized for culturing astrocytes. It can be used for anti-oxidization, anti-inflammation, analysis of cytokines and gliosis.
|Product Description||Cat. No.||Derived from||Components|
|Astrocyte Culture Kit (Rat)||PMC-AST01C-COS||SD Rat||・Astrocytes (Frozen Cells, 1 x 106 cells) - 1 vial|
|Astrocyte Culture Kit (Mouse)||PMC-AST02C-COS||C57BL/6N Mouse||・Astrocytes (Frozen Cells, 1 x 106cells) - 1 vial|
Astrocyte Culture Medium
ASTM is a complete medium designed for optimal culture for rat/mouse astrocytes in vitro. It is a sterile, liquid basal medium (D-MEM/F12) which contain essential and non-essential amino acids, vitamins, other organic compounds, trace minerals, inorganic salts, growth factors, hormones, fetal bovine serum, and antibiotics.
Materials required but not provided
• Various volume pipettes
• Culture dishes, plates or flasks
The Rat Astrocytes are characterized for each lot by Immunofluorescence of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
Left: Cell form of rat astrocytes
Right: Immunofluorescence of rat astrocytes Green:Anti-GFAP, Blue:nuclear staining
The Mouse Astrocytes are characterized for each lot by Immunofluorescence of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
Immunofluorescence of mouse astrocytes
B: Nuclear staining
C: Bright field
Astrocyte Culture medium
To be used for research only. DO NOT use for human gene therapy or clinical diagnosis.