Keratan sulfates (KSs) are sulfated polymers of N-acetyllactosamine structured by repeating (1 3)- -D-galactose-(1 4)- -D-N-acetylglucosamine units, which are generally sulfated at position C6 of the hexosamine and/or galactosamine. They are mostly covalently bound to core proteins of KS-bearing proteoglycans (PGs), but a few non-proteoglycan KS-substituted macromolecules have been described, and their attachment to protein backbones occurs primarily through an N-linkage involving glucosamine binding to an aspargine residue These are referred to type I KSs and are characteristic of the corneal ECM. KS chains may also be bound to proteins through an O-glycosidic linkage between galactosamine and a serine or threonine residue, i.e. referred to as type II KSs and highly represented in articular cartilage ECM. Phosphocan and other KS-containing PGs of the brain may also carry KS chains attached to the core protein through an alternative mannose-serine/threonine linkage.
One of the complexities of KSs is the variable degree of chain branching (i.e. bi-antennary in the cornea and more intricate branching in skeletal KS), which together with the variable extent and positioning of the sulfate groups and the relative frequency, linkage and type of capping fucose and/or neuraminic acid residues, creates a spectrum of putative functionally diverse KS moieties. For instance, sialic acid residues may coincidently, or in an alternated fashion be present in an (1-3), (2-3) or (2-6)-linkage, and may or may not associate with (1-3)-linked fucoses
Magro, M., Perissinotto, D., Schiappacassi, M., Goletz, S., Otto, A., M?ller, E.-C., Bisceglie, M., Brown, G., Ellis, T., Colombatti, A., Perris, R. 2003. Proteomic and post-proteomic characterization of keratan sulfate-glycanated isoforms of thyroglobulin and transferrin uniquely elaborated by papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J. Pathol. 163, 183-196.
Recommended use : WB, IHC(P), IP, FC, ELISA
Recommended Antibody Dilutions
Western blotting : 1/50 1/170
Band sizing and pattern depends upon the core protein size of the molecule (mostly proteoglycans) bearing keratin sulfate chains. If isolated chains are separated by PAGE, the banding patern appears as a smear and the approximate molecular weights of the bands depend upon the mass and polydispersity of the chains.
Immunohistochemistry : 1/50 to 1/150
ELISA, 1/100 - 1/500
Ubiquitously expressed through the body of vertebrates and expressed early on during embryogenesis around the notochord. Up-regulated in many tumour cells of epithelial origin and within the tumour stroma. Primary diagnostic marker of papillary type thyroid carcinoma.
|Western blotting of purified human articular cartilage aggrecan resolved prior to and after keratanase II, endo- -galactosidase-, or chondroitinase ABC-digestion on SDS-Agarose electrophoresis (left gel) or 3-8% gradient gels.|
|TEM rotary shadowing image of the binding of mAb 373E1 to keratan sulfate chains (arrows) of human articular cartilage aggrecan forming an hyaluronan-proteoglycan aggregate in vitro.|
Immunohistochemical staining (FITC-conjugated secondary antibodies) with mAb 373E1 of keratan sulfates of the ECM deposited with a glomerule of human kidney (PFA-OCT embedding and cryosectioning).
Immunohistochemical staining of keratan sulfates deposited within Langerhans islands of human adult pancreas (Formalin-paraffin embedding).
Anti Keratan Sulfate (373E1)
To be used for research only. DO NOT use for human gene therapy or clinical diagnosis.